Relecture, Traductions

What is proofreading?

Proofreading is the reading of a proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of the text. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication.

A proof is a typeset version of copy or a manuscript page. They often contain typos introduced through both human error and bugs in programming code. Traditionally, a proofreader looks at an increment of text on the copy and then compares it to the corresponding typeset increment, and then marks any errors (sometimes called line edits) using standard proofreaders marks. Thus, proofreading’s defining procedure is to work directly with two sets of information at the same time. Proofs are then returned to the typesetter for correction. Correction-cycle proofs will typically have one descriptive term, such as bounce, bump, or revise unique to the department or organization and used for clarity to the strict exclusion of any other. It is a common practice for all such corrections, no matter how slight, to be sent again to a proofreader to be checked and initialed, establishing the principle of consistent accuracy for proofreaders.

Experienced copy holders employ various codes and verbal short-cuts that accompany their reading. The spoken word digits, for example, means that the numbers about to be read aren’t words spelled out; and in a hole can mean that the upcoming segment of text is within parenthesis. Bang means an exclamation point. A thump made with a finger on the table represents the initial cap, comma, period, or similar obvious attribute being read simultaneously. Thus the line of text: (He said the address was 1234 Central Blvd., and to hurry!) would be read aloud as: in a hole [thump] he said the address was digits 1 2 3 4 [thump] central [thump] buluhvuhd [thump] comma and to hurry bang. Mutual understanding is the only guiding principle, so codes evolve as opportunity permits. In the above example, two thumps after buluhvuhd might be acceptable to proofreaders familiar with the text.

Double reading. A single proofreader checks a proof in the traditional manner, but then passes it on to a second reader who repeats the process. Both initial the proof. Note that with both copy holding and double reading, responsibility for a given proof is necessarily shared by two individuals.

Scanning, used to check a proof without reading it word for word, has become common with computerisation of typesetting and the popularisation of word processing. Many publishers have their own proprietary typesetting systems, while their customers use commercial programs such as Word. Before the data in a Word file can be published, it must be converted into a format used by the publisher. The end product is usually called a conversion. If a customer has already proofread the contents of a file before submitting it to a publisher, there will be no reason for another proofreader to re-read it from copy (although this additional service may be requested and paid for). Instead, the publisher is held responsible only for formatting errors, such as typeface, page width, and alignment of columns in tables; and production errors such as text inadvertently deleted. To simplify matters further, a given conversion will usually be assigned a specific template. Given typesetters of sufficient skill, experienced proofreaders familiar with their typesetters’ work can accurately scan their pages without reading the text for errors that neither they nor their typesetters are responsible for.

Before it is typeset, copy is often marked up by an editor or customer with various instructions as to typefaces, art, and layout. Often these individuals will consult a style guide of varying degrees of complexity and completeness. Such guides are usually produced in-house by the staff or supplied by the customer, and should be distinguished from professional references. When appropriate, proofreaders may mark errors in accordance with their house guide instead of the copy when the two conflict.

Checklists are commonly employed in proof-rooms where there is sufficient uniformity of product to distill some or all of its components to a list format. They may also act as a training tool for new hires.

The educational level of proofreaders in general is on par with that of their coworkers. Typesetters, graphic artists, and word processors are rarely required to have a college degree, and a perusal of online job-listings for proofreaders will show that although some specify a degree for proofreaders, as many do not. Those same listings will also show a tendency for degree-only positions to be in firms in commercial fields such as retail, medecine or insurance, where the data to be read is internal documentation not intended for public consumption. Such listings, specifying a single proofreader to fill a single position, are more likely to require a degree as a way of reducing the candidate-pool, but also because the degree is perceived as a requirement for any potentially promotable white collar applicant. Experience is discounted at the outset in preference to a credential, indicating a relatively low starting wage appropriate for younger applicants.

By contrast, printers, publishers, advertising agencies and law firms tend not to specifically require a degree. In these professionally demanding single-tasking environments, the educational divide surrounds the production department instead of the company itself. Promotion is rare for these proofreaders because they tend to be valued more for their present skill-set than for any potential leadership ability. They are often supervised by a typesetter also without a degree, or an administrative manager with little or no production experience who delegates day-to-day responsibilities to a typesetter. It follows that such listings tend to stress experience, offer commensurately higher rates of pay, and include mention of a proofreading test.

Applicants. Practical job-training for proofreaders has declined along with its status as a craft, although many commercial and college-level proofreading courses of varying quality can be found online. There are also available numerous books that instruct the basics to their readers. Such tools of self-preparation have by and large replaced formal workplace-instruction.

Proofreader applicants are tested primarily on their spelling, speed, and skill in finding errors in sample text. Towards that end, they may be given a list of ten or twenty classically difficult words and a proofreading test, both tightly timed. The proofreading test will often have a maximum number of errors per quantity of text and a minimum amount of time to find them. The goal of this approach is to identify those with the best skill-set.

A contrasting approach to testing is to identify and reward persistence more than an arbitrarily high level of expertise. For the spelling portion of the test, that can be accomplished by providing a dictionary; lengthening the word-list conspicuously; and making clear that the test is not timed. For the proofreading portion a suitable language-usage reference book (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style) can be provided. (Note that knowing where to find needed information in such specialized books is itself an effective component of the test.) Removing the pressure of what is essentially an ASAP deadline will identify those applicants with marginally greater reservoirs of persistence, stamina, and commitment. At the same time, by mooting the need for applicants to make use of a memorized list of difficult words and a studied knowledge of the more common grammatical traps (affect, effect, lay, lie), applicants learn that their success depends primarily on a quality at least theoretically available to anyone at any time without preparation.

Formal employee-testing is usually planned and announced well in advance, and may have titles, such as Levels Testing, Skills Evaluation, etc. They are found in corporate or governmental environments with a large enough HR staff to devote to preparing and administering the tests.

Informal employee-testing takes place whenever a manager feels the need to take a random sampling of a proofreader’s work by double-reading selected pages. Usually this is done without warning, and sometimes it will be done secretly. It can be highly effective, and there will certainly be times when such re-reading is justified, but care must be taken.

There are two basic approaches. The first is to re-read a proof within its deadline and in the department itself. Thus the manager will read from the same copy that the first reader saw, and be aware of any volume and deadline pressures the first reader was under, and can directly observe the individual in real time. This approach can also be followed as a matter of routine. The goal then is not to confirm a specific suspicion of poor job-performance by a particular reader, but rather to confirm a general assumption that the proofreading staff needs ongoing monitoring.

The second approach to informal testing is to wait for some days or weeks and then, as time allows, randomly select proofs to re-read while outside the department. Such proofs may or may not be accompanied by the copy pages that the proofreader saw. Here the re-reader is examining the proof from the perspective of typographical and formatting accuracy alone, ignoring how many other pages the first reader had read that day, and had yet to read, and how many pages were successfully read and how many deadlines were met under a given day’s specific conditions.

Proofreading cannot be fully cost-effective where volume or unpredictable work flow prevents proofreaders from managing their own time. Examples are newspapers, trade printing of buseness cards, and network hubs. The problem in each of these environments is that jobs cannot be put aside to be re-read as needed. In the first two cases, volumes and deadlines dictate that all jobs be finished as soon as possible; in the third case, jobs presently on-site at the hub are hurried, regardless of their formal deadline, in favor of possible future work that may arrive unpredictably. Where proofs can programmatically be read only once, quality will randomly but persistently fall below expectations. Even the best and most experienced readers will not be able to be consistently accurate enough to justify premium pay.

Production technology can also moot the need to pay a premium for proofreading. In the example of thermographic business-card printing, even when there are no reprints, there is considerable wastage of paper and ink in preparing each of the press-runs, which are separated by color. When (as often happens) there is unused space available on the plate, there is no increase in production cost for reprints that use that space. Only when reprints are so numerous that they push production staff into significant  overtime would they increase costs. But significant overtime is usually the result of a high volume in new orders using up the eight-hour day. In such industries proofreading need only – and can only – make a marginal difference to be cost-effective. As for the customers, many will never return even when their jobs are perfect, and enough of those who do need a reprint will find the retailer’s cost-saving price to be satisfactory enough to tolerate a late delivery.



In fulfilment of an order proofreading and editing is as important as the translation itself. To error is human, therefore translators may make mistakes, even those of them with years of experience.For this reason, 90% of the finished translations made by the professionals are processed by editors. The remaining 10% relate to urgent translations when proofreading cannot be done with the best will in the world as there is no time for it.

The editor’s task is not limited by checking the correctness of the text; proofreading also means comparing the translation with the source text and correcting the mistakes. Highly specialized texts are edited by professionals in the appropriate field.

What Is Corrected?

There are different types of translation mistakes:

– textual mistakes:

– grammar and vocabulary (spelling, punctuation mistakes)

– stylistic (awkward language, misused words and expressions)

– Translation mistakes:

– mistakes in translation of separate words and terms

– no translation of some parts of the text

Translation companies are often asked to provide a proofreading of the finished translation.  Please note that the translation should be made by a professional translator or a specialist with good language skills.

Relecture, Traductions

Legal translation service – what you need to know

When it comes to translating a document, you have two choices: You may go to a self-proclaimed talented freelancer or you may approach a reputable company that follows industry standards. Costs of working with a freelancer may be less, but the risks are proportionally higher. A sad experience of Coors illustrated this, when their ‘Turn it loose’ slogan ended up as ‘Suffer from Diarrhea’. Talk about being lost in translation!

However, when it comes to legal documents, there is only one smart choice, and that is working with certified and experienced translators. Since law is very much dependent on the culture of the land and on the particular subject that is dealt with by the document, inaccurate or wrong translation may have dire consequences. That is why businesses invariably turn to reputable translation companies that work with certified and experienced translators.

Legal translation services may be required by any business or individual, though they are most commonly required by law offices and courts, especially for court proceedings on an international level. So, when lawyers deal with foreign documents, legal translation services are a must. What’s more, if the translated document is to be legally valid in another country, it has to be translated and certified by a « sworn translator ».

A sworn translator is a person who has been certified by his or her country’s government with the power to execute a sworn translation. This is different from a certified translation. In the latter case, the translator is highly competent and is a member of an association or club (like the American Translators Association in the US). While this offers a guarantee of the quality of work, it is not legally binding. The document may be well translated, but it will not have any legal validity. A legal translation service will provide you with a translated document that bears the seal of a local civil court which identifies the translator as being a sworn translator. Any translation that is produced by a sworn translator may be deemed as being a legal document when it bears the official seal and signature. Every page of such a document will be signed and sealed in this manner.

Most businesses documents need legal translation services only for certain documents that require legal validity in a foreign language. For instance, a translated birth certificate, degree certificate, patent certificate, proof of identity, official documents or a company’s articles of association require legal translation services when they are rendered into a foreign language. Only then will such documents be accepted as being legally valid in the foreign country.

As businesses grow, the demand for corporate documents to be legally translated is on the rise. Sworn translations may be more expensive but it is the very nature of accuracy and legal validity that make them costly. And smart businesses are happy to shell out the extra price. Better safe than sorry, especially for legal documents.